Gender Differences in the Sources of High School Students’ Chemistry Self-Efficacy Beliefs (Presentation,International)
2017, August 21-25
 Esra Sarici, Esen Uzuntiryaki Kondakçi,SSME
Abstract: In recent years, researchers have focused on motivational factors affecting student achievement. Among these factors, based on social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is defined as “people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performance” (Bandura, 1986, p. 391). The higher the self-efficacy beliefs of people, the more they put their aims in this direction and the more they strive to reach them. Self-efficacy plays role on selection of activities, effort shown for a task, and resistance to complete a task. Self-efficacy, therefore, is one of the constructs that significantly predicts student achievement in various disciplines such as science and mathematics (Bong, 2009; Britner & Pajares, 2006; Kupermintz, 2002). In addition, self-efficacy is domain-specific, which means that students have different levels of self-efficacy in different areas. Therefore, in the present study, we focused on chemistry self-efficacy which is defined as students’ beliefs in their ability to accomplish chemistry tasks (Uzuntiryaki & Çapa Aydin, 2009). Particularly, we examined whether the sources of chemistry self-efficacy differ with respect to gender. Data were collected from 303 (167 females, 129 males, 6 non-respondents) 11th grade students from seven different public high schools. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 with a mean value of 17. Data of the study were collected using two instruments. High School Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (Çapa Aydin & Uzuntiryaki, 2009) was used to assess high school students’ self-efficacy beliefs in chemistry. The other instrument used to collect data in the study was Sources of Middle School Self-Efficacy Scale (Usher & Pajares, 2009). This scale was adapted into Turkish by Uzuntiryaki, Çapa Aydin, Ceylandag, and Cömert (2011). For data analysis, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed using SPSS 23 program. The dependent variables were CSCS and SCL whereas the independent variables were the four sources of self-efficacy (mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasion, and physiological states). Totally, four separate multiple regression analyses were performed: Taking CSCS as dependent variable, we run two multiple linear regression analyses for males and females separately. Similarly, we run the two multiple linear regression analyses with the other dependent variable –SCL- for two gender types. Regarding CSCS, overall model explained 42.4 over 100 of variance in females and 25.7 over 100 of variance in males. Results indicated that mastery experiences were significant predictor of CSCS for both females and males. These findings confirm the Bandura’s (1997) assertion that mastery experience is the most powerful predictor of self-efficacy. Additionally, vicarious experiences were found to be significant source only for females. For SCL, overall the model explained 7.4 over 100 of variance in females and 3.7 over 100 of variance in males. Results indicated that although mastery experience was significant predictor for females, verbal persuasion was significant source for males.
The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) 2017